136) Employment relationship and wages

The seniority system is widely used. Generally speaking, one's salary increases according to the number of years one has been employed at that place, and one's seniority within the company increases with one's age, until the retiring age is reached. The problems arise after retirement. Since age has been allowed to take precedence ever real ability for such a long time, signs of an eroding productivity have recently become apparent.

137) Allotment of duties and delegation of power

The allotment of duties to each worker is not always clear. There is a tendency for jobs to follow people, rather than to be assigned to them. There is a general affairs department in every company, which accepts jobs that the other departments can not do. It's common to delegate power. We tend to take responsibility as a group.

138) The type of superior which one prefers

At work we tend to prefer the type of warmhearted superior who takes a personal care to his workers. It is common for a superior to play the role of match-maker.

139) Bonuses and public


Bonuses and welfare money add up to a considerable sum. A bonus equal to the salary of 2 or 3 months is supplied twice a year by big businesses.

140) Employment of workers

In many cases the new personnel are employed from graduates fresh from universities or colleges, without pointing out their specific jobs. When a worker is required part way through a job, we advertise the job and employ a suitable person. Such a case, however, isn't common.

141) Training newly employed people

A few weeks, or a few months office training is given to each man upon commencement of his new job.

142) Education and employment

There is a tendency to attach importance to the fact that one has had a university education, rather than to what one has actually learned during that education. In fact, no American style business school (of university level) exists. Whereas, English language schools are everywhere.

143) Layout of an office

An office is usually a big room. Superiors often occupy the seats beside the windows.

144) Office and school


In most companies, the workers, especially the women, wear uniforms, which are supplied by the company either free or at cost charge. Students are required to wear uniform in the majority of schools. Many people wear the collar badge of the school, office or club to which they belong.

145) Factory uniforms

Factory workers, from managers to part-time workers, normally wear the same uniform.

146) Physical exercise

In many factories, all the workers attend a morning meeting, at which they may sing the company song in some factories, or say the company motto. Some factories also have a time when their workers take physical exercise together.

147) The consciousness of belonging to an organization

All members of an organization, from the president to the drivers, are conscious of belonging to the organization in the same way that people belong to a family. They have very little to do with people belonging to other organizations. All the workers of a company, which sometimes includes white-collar workers, belong to the same inter-office association.

148) Treatment of people who have been with a company for a long time

When a person, who has worked for a company for a long time, becomes unable to do his job well, he is given a new and more leisurely position. It is difficult to dismiss an employee under the lifetime employment system. Nowadays, however, the conditions of employment are becoming more and more severe.

149) The age of retirement and the average life span

The age of retirement is normally fifty-five, but it is likely to be prolonged in some cases. The average life is 72 years for a man and 77 years for a woman. It is becoming harder for middle aged or old people to find employment.

150) Changing one's company and job

It is not very common to change one's job or company. However, it is very common for personnel to be reshuffled within a company.